Incubation data

Eier Gelege Inkubation

If you want to breed chameleons, there is usually no way around incubating the eggs under controlled conditions. However, for many less commonly kept species, the question is how exactly to incubate? In general, we recommend using the soil temperatures of the habitat of the species in question as a guide. You can find temperatures for this under the respective species pages under the heading Species & Habitat Data. We have annotated all species for which we have measured ground temperatures in the following tables. However, measurements of soil temperatures do not already exist for all habitats. Therefore, we have compiled here a collection of literature dealing with the incubation of Malagasy chameleon eggs. The data are sorted by genus and alphabetically. More information on incubation substrates, incubators, and containers can be found on this page.

Brookesia

Unfortunately, earth chameleons from Madagascar are not very well represented in herpetoculture due to their rather inconspicuous colouration and small size. Nevertheless, there have been breeding successes with some species for some time.Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.

Species Incubation period Temperature Source
Brookesia stumpffi, Montagne d'Ambre, 2019

Brookesia stumpffi

50-60 days 18-22°C Schmidt, Henkel und Böhme (1989): Zur Haltung und Fortpflanzungsbiologie von Brookesia stumpffi. Salamandra 25 (1): 14-20.
45-50 days 20-21°C Brygoo (1978): Reptiles Sauriens Chamaeleonidae, genre Brookesia et complement pour le genre Chamaeleo. Faune de Madagascar 47: 1-174.
67-68 days 23°C Raxworthy (1991): Field observations on some dwarf chameleons (Brookesia spp.) from rainforest areas of Madagascar, with the description of a new species. Journal of Zoology 224: 11-25.
60 days 20-21°C Schmidt (1993): Minisaurier aus dem Regenwald. Aqua Geographica 1(3): 62-69.

Brookesia ramanantsoai

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.

Brookesia superciliaris

68 days 27°C during the day
15°C at night
Lippe (1994): Wieder eine gelungene Nachzucht eines Erdchamäleons (Brookesia superciliaris). Chamaeleo 12: 3-4.
Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.

Brookesia therezieni

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.
Brookesia thieli in Ranomafana 2018Brookesia thieli 103-118 days 22°C during the day
15°C at night
Flamme (2005): Haltung und Nachzucht von Brookesia thieli. Chamaeleo 31: 37-43.
51-60 days 23°C during the day
18°C at night
Flamme (2005): Haltung und Nachzucht von Brookesia thieli. Chamaeleo 31: 37-43.
58-70 days 21-23°C during the day
19-20°C at night
Nash (2022): Keeping and breeding Brookesia thieli. Responsible Herpetoculture Journal 5: 84-91.
Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.


Calumma

Most Calumma species need a so-called diapause. Diapause in chameleons refers to a cooler phase during which development in the egg almost stagnates. The cool phase takes place in Madagascar during the dry season between April and October. It bridges the time until the rainy season from October, when the hatching juveniles have much better starting conditions. It also ensures better hatching synchronisation: this means that all the young of a clutch hatch as close to each other as possible. For some chameleon species, diapause during incubation is very important for hatching success and healthy juveniles. How cool it gets during the diapause depends on the origin of the chameleon species.

Species Incubation period Warmth phase Diapause Procedure Source
Calumma brevicorne in Analamazaotra 2018

Calumma brevicorne

 

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.
Calumma emelinae female, Moramanga, 2020

Calumma emelinae

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.

Calumma gastrotaenia

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.
Calumma globifer

Calumma globifer

540 days 20-22°C 16°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
2. diapause
3. warmth phase
Weiß (2005): Chamäleons die unbekannten Wesen; Vorstellung von Calumma globiferum. Chamaeleo 31: 22-23.
Calumma malthe in Maromizaha 2018

Calumma malthe

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.
Calumma nasutum

Calumma nasutum

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.
 

Calumma parsonii cristifer

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.
395 days 21°C, maximum 23°C 17°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
2. diapause
3. warmth phase
Kalisch (1998): The care and breeding of C. parsonii cristifer. Chameleon information network 27: 15-17.
390-420 days 22°C 21-28 days
at 13-14°C
1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Augustin (2021): Nachzucht von Calumma parsonii . Chamaeleo 48: 78-88.

Calumma parsonii parsonii

 

537-781 days 28 days at 20°C,
28 days at 24°C,
then 1st diapause,
all other warmth phases at 24°C
each 28 days
at 13-14°C
1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
2. diapause
3. warmth phase
own experience
546 days 28 days at 22°C, then 1st diapause, all other warmth phases at 23-24°C each 21-28 days at 13-14°C Augustin (2011): Eine Inkubationsmethode für Eier von Calumma parsonii (hier der Variante “orange eye”). Chamaeleo 42: 8-12.
90 days at 24°C in 1st warmth phase, from 2nd on 23°C each 90 days at 18°C Kalisch (1994): Chameleon profile Parson’s chameleon. Chameleon information network 12: 10- 18.
600 days 21-24°C during the day, 18-20°C at night each three months at 18-19°C during the day and 13-16°C at night Tröger (1997): Remarks about the long-term captive care and first steps towards captive breeding of Calumma parsonii. Chameleon information network 25: 29-36.
480-600 days 22°C each 21-28 days 13-14°C Augustin (2021): Nachzucht von Calumma parsonii . Chamaeleo 48: 78-88

 

Furcifer

There are also some species in the genus Furcifer that benefit from a cooler phase. However, it is not necessary for successful incubation in all species. Accordingly, even some species have incubations both with and without diapause. The species for which column “Procedure” only says “not applicable” are incubated continuously at the temperatures under “warmth phase” without a cooler period.

 

Species Incubation period Warmth phase Diapause Procedure Source

Furcifer angeli

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.
Furcifer antimena male

Furcifer antimena

360 days 27-30°C not applicable

Schmidt (1992): Über die erstmalig gelungene Nachzucht von Furcifer campani, sowie eine Zusammenstellung einiger Ei-Zeitigungsdaten von verschiedenen Chamäleon-Arten in Tabellenform. Sauria 14 (3): 21-23.

Furcifer balteatus male

Furcifer balteatus

22°C 17°C 1.  warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Althaus, Weiß (2009): Vorstellung von Furcifer balteatus. Chamaeleo 29: 19-21. 
Furcifer campani neuer Fundort

Furcifer campani

228-236 days 45 days at 26°C 45 days at 10-15°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Schmidt (1992): Über die erstmalig gelungene Nachzucht von Furcifer campani, sowie eine Zusammenstellung einiger Ei-Zeitigungsdaten von verschiedenen Chamäleon-Arten in Tabellenform. Sauria 14 (3): 21-23.
Furcifer lateralis

Furcifer lateralis

210 days 70 days at 22°C in 1st warmth phase, 24°C in 2nd warmth phase 70 days at 14°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
eigene Erfahrungen
207-209 days 42 dayst at25°C in 1st  warmth phase, 70 days at 25-27°C in 2nd  warmth phase, 73-75 days at 25-27°C in 3rd warmth phase 87 days at 11-13°C in 1st diapause, 88 days at 17-20°C in 2nd diapause 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
2. diapause
3.  warmth phase
Schwarz (2008): Furcifer lateralis  – Das Teppichchamäleon: Pflege und Nachzucht. Chamaeleo 37: 34-38.
220 days 31 days at 25°C in 1st warmth phase, 25-27°C in 2nd  warmth phase 100 days at 18°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Schwarz (2008): Furcifer lateralis  – Das Teppichchamäleon: Pflege und Nachzucht. Chamaeleo 37: 34-38.
185 days 45 days at 25°C in 1st warmth phase, 25-27°C in 2nd warmth phase 40 days at 10-15°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Schmidt (2001): Haltung und Zucht von Furcifer lateralis in mehreren Generationen. Chamaeleo 22: 9-10.  
154-378 days 45 days at 26-28°, then 76 days at 25-28°C in 1st  warmth phase,  26-28°C in 3rd warmth phase 45 days at 10-15°C, then 45 days at 10-18°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
2. diapause
3.  warmth phase
Schmidt (1992): Über die erstmalig gelungene Nachzucht von Furcifer campani, sowie eine Zusammenstellung einiger Ei-Zeitigungsdaten von verschiedenen Chamäleon-Arten in Tabellenform. Sauria 14 (3): 21-23.
154-249 days 30 days > 20°C in 1st warmth phase, 25-30°C in 2nd warmth phase minimum 25 days at 8-10°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Schmidt (1985): Chamaeleo lateralis. Beilage zu Sauria 7 (4): 25-26.
160 days each 31 days at 25°C approximately 100 days at 15-18°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Ludwig & Ludwig (2022): Erfahrungen mit der Haltung und Zucht des Teppichchamäleons Furcifer lateralis. Chamaeleo 48: 23-26.  

Furcifer major
190 days each 45 days at 24-25°C 45 days at 12-16°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Böhle (1998): Einige Anmerkungen zu Furcifer lateralis “major”. Chamaeleo 20: 8-9.
je 45 Tage
bei 26-28°C
45 days at 12-18°C Henkel, Heinecke (1993): Chamäleons im Terrarium. Landbuch-Verlag, 1. Auflage.
45 days at 25°C in 1st warmth phase,
25-28°C in 2nd warmth phase
40 days at 10-15°C Necas (1995): Chamäleons: Bunte Juwelen der Natur. Edition Chimaira, 1. Auflage. 

45 days at 22°C in 1st warmth phase,
25-26°C in 2nd warmth phase

45 days at 14-18°C Rutsch (2006): Erste eigene Erfahrungen mit der großen Form von Furcifer lateralis. Chamaeleo 33: 13-14.
Furcifer minor aus dem Fundort nahe RN7 2018
Furcifer minor
210-251 days 70 days at 22°C in 1st warmth phase,  24°C in 2nd warmth phase 70 days at 14°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
own experience
240 days 48 days at 22°C during the day,
18°C at night in 1st warmth phase, 24°C in 2nd warmth phase
61 days at 13-16°C, some days < 10 °C Althaus (2008): Erste Erfahrungen zur Haltung und Nachzucht von Furcifer minor. Chamaeleo 37: 34-38.
Furcifer oustaleti in Kirindy 2017

Furcifer oustaleti

274 days 28°C not applicable Schmidt (1992): Über die erstmalig gelungene Nachzucht von Furcifer campani, sowie eine Zusammenstellung einiger Ei-Zeitigungsdaten von verschiedenen Chamaeleon-Arten in Tabellenform. Sauria 14 (3): 21-23.
243-365 days 24-27°C during the day,
14-17°C at night
not applicable Smith, Abate (1999): Chameleon Profile, Oustalet’s Chameleon. Chameleon information network 32: 19-25.

Furcifer pardalis

200-210 days depending on local form

70 days at 25°C in 1st warmth phase, same temperature in 2nd warmth phase

28 days at 17°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
own experience
26°C not applicable
159-390 days 25-28°C not applicable Ferguson, Murphy, Raselimanana, Ramanamanjato, Annis (1994): Chameleon Profile, The Panther Chameleon. Chameleon information network 11: 11-20.
180-365 days 20-24°C
159-365 days 26-28°C not applicable Schmidt (1992): Über die erstmalig gelungene Nachzucht von Furcifer campani, sowie eine Zusammenstellung einiger Ei-Zeitigungsdaten von verschiedenen Chamäleon-Arten in Tabellenform. Sauria 14 (3): 21-23.
213-243 days 75 days at 26°C  in 1st warmth phase, same temperature in 2nd warmth phase 60 days at 23°C 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Eckhardt (2018): Triplet from a single egg in the panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis). Herpetology Notes 11: 777-779.
Furcifer rhinoceratus in Ankarafantsika 2017

Furcifer rhinoceratus

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.

Furcifer verrucosus
280 days 26-28°C during the day,
21-23°C at night
not applicable Schneider, Lutzmann (2002): Das Warzenchamäleon Furcifer verrucosus. Chamaeleo 25: 20-22.
300 days 26-28°C during the day,
21-23°C at night
not applicable Schneider, Lutzmann (2002): Das Warzenchamäleon Furcifer verrucosus. Chamaeleo 25: 20-22.
365 days 26°C during the day,
24 °C at night in 1st warmth phase and 25-28°C during the day,
18-23°C at night in 2nd warmth phase
10-15°C over 3 months 1. warmth phase
1. diapause
2. warmth phase
Starke-Huber (2007): Haltung und Zucht von Furcifer verrucosus (Warzechamäleon). Chamaeleo 35: 31-33.
280 days 23-25°C during the day,
15-20°C at night
not applicable Abate, Kalisch (1995): Chameleon Profile, Chameleo verrucosus. Chameleon information network 15: 17-24.
Furcifer willsii aus Mitsinjo, Weibchen, 2016

Furcifer willsii

Soil temperatures are available here for the habitat of this species.

 

If you know of other interesting literature on incubation conditions or would like to publish your own experiences, please contact us. Only incubation data where viable juveniles have hatched will be included in the overview.

 

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